The socialist debate in South Africa is dominated by the Leninist tradition and its crisis. On the other hand, the militant labour movement and the liberation movement are increasingly looking for practical models from social democratic societies. This development has not been assimilated into the socialist debate. SA Labour Bulletin decided to open new questions by inviting Winston Higgins, a leading left social democratic thinker from Australia, to address a seminar on the theme, Social democracy or democratic socialism? His address was followed by responses from a panel of South African socialists, and comments and questions from the floor.